Along the mountain range of the Magdalena Mountains are 36 mines. The most well known is the Kelly Mine. In 1866 John Hutchason joined Pete Kinisinger in what was then called “Middle Town”. It consisted at the time of the Graphic, Waldo, Juanita and Kelly Mine.
Huge amounts of Silver,Zinc and Lead ores were taken to the smelter. At that time Patrick H. Kelley held a few claims. By 1884 the town of Kelly was established as a booming town and 3,000 people lived there.
The railway was established in Magdalena to haul all the materials from the mines. Kelly existed up until 1947 when the last of the inhabitants left. Still standing is the Kelly Head frame designed by Alexander G. Eiffel.
Bluish interesting rock was found in the Kelly mines. Cory T. Brown of Socorro shipped some of the discarded bluish rock back east for testing. It turned out to be a valuable zinc carbonate. It was then named Smithsonite in honor of James Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Institute. ( Smithsonite was originally called Calamine and then Hemimorphite but were found to be two distinct minerals)
E.A Clemens was the nephew of Samuel Clemens whose pen name was Mark Twain. He was the Chemist for the Graphic Mine. He bred and raised horses for the U.S. Calvary and for the ranchers on the Cattle Drive ending in Magdalena. He was breeding to create a hearty animal that was capable of hard work , desert and prairie hearty.
In 1910 Clemens built the stone ranch house having imported stonemasons from Italy who quarried local stone.